Ralph Keeling, PhD

Ralph Keeling is the current program director of the Scripps CO2 Program. He is also a Professor and the Principal Investigator for the Atmospheric Oxygen Research Group at Scripps Institution of Oceanography.

Research Interests

  • Measurements of variations in atmospheric oxygen
  • Recent perturbations to the global carbon cycle
  • Air-sea gas exchange
  • Detection of ocean heat storage and transport using atmospheric gases
  • Paleoclimate theory


  • B.S., Yale University, Connecticut
  • Ph.D., Harvard University

Selected Publications

  • 2004. Measurement of changes in atmospheric Ar/N2 ratio using a rapid-switching, single-capillary mass spectrometer system: Tellus: 56B: 322-338.
  • 2002. The change in ocean oxygen inventory associated with recent global warming. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences: 99:7848-7853.
  • 2001. Antarctic stratification and glacial CO2. Nature: 412:605-606.
  • 2001. Antarctic sea ice and the control of Pleistocene climate instability. Paleoceanography: 16:112-131,330-334.
  • 2000. The influence of Antarctic sea ice on glacial-interglacial CO2 variations. Nature: 404:171-174.
  • 1998. Seasonal variations in the atmospheric O2/N2 ratio in relation to the kinetics of air-sea gas exchange. Global Biogeochemical Cycles: 12:141-163.
  • 1996. Global and hemispheric CO2 sinks deduced from changes in atmospheric O2 concentration. Nature: 381:218-221.




Radm Len Hering, PhD (Ret.)

Rear Admiral Leendert “Len” Hering Sr. (U.S. Navy, retired), is a prominent military and civilian sustainability leader with a broad background in energy and environmental issues. His passion in sustainability is educating people on the dangers the future holds without taking responsible actions to secure the nation’s energy independence and to preserve water, air quality and other resources.

A native of Portsmouth, Va., Hering retired from the Navy as a Surface Warfare Officer in 2009 after more than 32 years of service. He was noted as one of the Navy’s top experts in base operations and facility support with an emphasis on sustainability and the environment.

While in the Navy, Hering’s efforts ashore included everything from renewable energy to responsible water use and conservation. He built a team recognized throughout the Department of Defense as the best in environmental protection and sustainable innovation. Within three years, the team reduced energy consumption by nearly 42%, diverted 75% of Navy waste from landfills and reduced water consumption by more than one billion gallons, saving tens of millions of taxpayer dollars. Hering instigated wind, thermal, photovoltaic and conversion technology at all levels in Navy facilities. President Bush awarded Hering a 2005 Presidential Award for Leadership in Federal Energy Management in recognition of efforts reducing oil spills and for recycling.

In 2009, Hering joined the University of San Diego, where as vice president for business services and administration he initiated numerous sustainable measures on the campus. Within the two years he served, USD installed the largest solar system of any private campus in the country, instituted the most comprehensive water abatement project in the school’s history and reformed numerous business practices to help control costs. His efforts resulted in saving more than 3 million gallons of water per year and more than $1 million in electrical costs.

Today he is the Executive Director of the California Center for Sustainable Energy, a 501(c)3, whose mission is to accelerate the transition to a sustainable world powered by clean energy. The Center works with policy makers, public agencies, local governments, utilities, business and civic leaders and individuals to transform California’s energy marketplace and beyond.

Hering’s endeavors also include founding what is now the largest sustainability business partnership in San Diego County, the San Diego Regional Sustainability Partnership, a consortium of business, government, academic and community organizations promoting practices that support a sustainable future for the region.


  • State University of New York Maritime College, B.S. degree, meteorology and oceanography
  • Naval War College, M.S. degree, international relations and strategic studies
  • Salve Regina University, M.S. degree, business management


  • 2005 Presidential Award for Leadership in Federal Energy Management
  • 2006 & 2007 San Diego’s Top 100 Influentials
  • 2006 Community Sustainability Award, California Manufactures & Technology
  • Association and Industrial Environmental Association
  • 2008 San Diego’s Deal Maker of the Year
  • 2008 Spirit of San Diego Award
  • 2008 & 2009 City of San Diego Recycler of the Year
  • 2010 American Lung Association Climate Champion Award
  • 2010 Energy All-Star Award, Outstanding Sustainable Organization, CCSE
  • 2013 San Diego’s Top 50 Influentials
  • 2013 National Bio-diesel Board Inspiration Award

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